Feijoada

Feijoada

 

All eyes will be on Brazil this week when the 2016 Summer Olympics, ready or not, will kick off in Rio de Janeiro! 

looking beyond the games, Brazil is a mesmerizing  country. A tropical paradise with a 3000 mile coastline of glittering beaches, vast rainforests that are the lungs of the world, and an endless abundance of natural resources. But it is Brazil’s multicultural population of indigenous Indians, Europeans, West Africans and Asians who have assimilated each other’s cultures and customs that make Brazil such a spellbinding destination. A country with vast wealth and striking poverty, yet it is the Brazilian’s irrepressible expressive spirit that has captivated a worldwide audience with its lavish Carnival celebrations, the samba, the bossa nova and of course incredible food!

It is Brazil’ abundance of exotic fruits, vegetables, beans, meats, poultry, seafood, nuts, cheeses, coffee, and wines that makes Brazil a cook’s paradise. I’ve always felt that cooking is a point of departure for a vicarious journey into the heart and soul of a country, its customs, its people, and especially its deeply rooted food traditions 

I have included a very brief history of Brazil’s evolution and a list of informative award winning Brazilian films following the recipes. See below.

 

Feijoada is Brazil’s national dish. It is creamy black bean stew, or cassoulet if you will, with a variety of meats and seasonings influenced by Brazil’s European and West African emigres. Black beans are native to Central and South America, with Brazil being largest producer of black beans in the world. Every region of Brazil has its own variations of feijoada, but what would be considered an authentic feijoada may include a pig’s ear and tail, organ meats, smoked ham hocks, and blood sausage, all of which I have dispensed with for the sake of practical convenience for the home cook. This is a really festive dish to cook up for a big crowd. Just turn on the music and fill the kitchen with the beautiful sounds of Brazil’s Gilberto Gil, Milton Nascimento, and Tom Jobim while you’re cooking!

Feijoada: serves 6-8

Know your dried beans! Cooking times for dried black beans can vary from 1 ½ to 5 hours depending on the how old the beans are. This is impossible to determine unless you have a very reliable source! On the side of caution I would highly recommend cooking the beans separately and then add the remaining ingredients for the feijoada to finish the cooking. In Traditional recipes the beans and meats are cooked together, but as stated, this is risky business.

Black Beans:

  • 3 cups black beans
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 large onion, diced
  • 5 garlic cloves, peeled and minced
  • 4 bay leaves

Pick through the beans and remove any debris that may have been collected up with the beans in the drying process. Rinse the beans thoroughly in cold water and drain. Place them in a large bowl and cover with water. Cover the bowl and place it in the fridge to soak overnight. After soaking, transfer the beans to a colander and strain off the soaking water. Rinse the beans and set aside.

Select a heavy bottomed stockpot and place it on the stove over medium flame. Add the olive oil and when hot add the onions and cook, stirring from time to time, until the onions are soft, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and cook another minute. Add the black beans and the bay leaves and stir. Fill the pot about ¾ full of water and stir. Turn up the heat and once the water is boiling lower the heat to a steady simmer. Be sure to stir the beans every 15 minutes so the beans don’t stick to the bottom of the pot.

It is also a good idea to have a kettle of boiling water on call to replenish the water that has evaporated as the beans cook. Adding cold water just slows down the cooking process.

Ideally the beans for this recipe should be cooked al dente, meaning still holding their shape with a semi soft flesh, as the cooked meats will be added to the beans that will then continue to cook for another 45 minutes.

Test the beans from time to time to avoid overcooking. The best way to do this is to select a bean from the pot and place in on your work surface. The bean should feel firm on the outside. Using your index finger, firmly press down on the bean and slide it towards you. If the flesh feels semi soft, the beans are done. If not, continue cooking, testing from time to time and adding more boiled water as needed until the beans are are cooked as described.

Once the beans are done, using a slotted spoon, transfer about 1/4 of the beans to a bowl or food processor. Add some cooking water and mash or process the beans into a puree and set aside to use later.

Feijoada: meats and accompaniments

  • 1 tablespoon olive oil
  • 6 slices smoked bacon, sliced into small strips
  • 1 pound pork shoulder (or smoked ham), cut into bite size pieces
  • 1 large onion, diced
  • 6 garlic cloves, peeled and minced
  • ¼ pond carne seca (jerked beef), pre-soaked and cut into small strips
  • 1 pound pork ribs, separated
  • 1 pound Portuguese Linguica sausage (Spanish chorizo, Italian hot sausage, or other)
  • sea salt
  • freshly ground black pepper
  • fresh orange slices
  • Farofa (see recipe below)  
  • Malagueta pepper sauce (see recipe below)
  • sautéed kale or collard greens (accompaniment)
  • cooked long grain white rice (accompaniment)

Select another heavy bottomed stockpot and place it on the stove over medium flame. Add the olive oil and when hot add the bacon and pork shoulder and sear until lightly browned. Add the onions and garlic and continue to cook until soft. Add enough water to fill the stockpot to the halfway mark. Bring to a boil and reduce the heat to a simmer. Add the carne seca and cook for 30 minutes. Then add the pork ribs and continue to cook for 20 minutes, adding more water as needed.

While the meats are cooking, add 1 tablespoons olive oil to a skillet set over medium high heat. When hot add the sausage and brown on all sides. Add a little water and deglaze the pan and set aside to cool. When the sausage is cool enough to handle cut it into bit size pieces and set aside.

At this point you are going to add the meats to the cooked beans.

Reheat the beans to a simmer and then add the meats along with the stock to the beans. Bring to a boil. Then lower the heat to a simmer and cook for 30 minutes, stirring from time to time. Then add the reserved sausage and deglazing liquid and the reserved bean puree and stir in until well combine. Continue to cook another 15 to 20 minutes, again stirring from time to time. The feijoada should have the consistency of cream soup. Skim off excess fat that has risen to the surface and discard.

Taste and season with salt and pepper to your liking.     Finished!

Serving:
Feijoada is always served with sautéed kale or collards along with steaming hot long grain rice, so you want to have them prepared in advance.

Spoon the feijoada onto individual plates, being sure to include a selection of all the assorted meats for each serving, as well as an ample amount of beans and cooking broth. Garnish with fresh orange slices as pictured. Add the kale (or collards) and rice to each plate and serve promptly.

Place a small bowl of Farofa and a bowl of Malagueta pepper sauce on the table.

Storage: Any leftover Feijoada improves with age and will keep for 3 to 4 days refrigerated.

 

Farofa:  This is a condiment that is served with most bean dishes throughout Brazil. It has a slight nutty flavor that is surprisingly complimentary.

Farofa

Farofacomplementary to the flavor of beans.

  • 1 cup manioc flour (cassava flour)
  • 1 tablespoon bacon fat (or olive oil)
  • 2 garlic cloves, microplaned
  • several pinches of sea salt

If manioc flour is unavailable, you can substitute chickpea flour, rice flour, or all purpose flour.

Place the bacon fat or oil in a skillet set over medium low heat. Swirl the pan as it heats up to coat the bottom of the pan. Scatter the flour evenly over the surface of the pan. Add the garlic and salt and stir continuously, being sure to turn the flour over as it browns. After a few minutes the mixture will turn a light golden color. Do not over cook! Transfer the toasted flour at just the right moment to a bowl to cool.

 

Malagueta Pepper Sauce

Malagueta Pepper Sauce

Mola de Pimenta Malagueta (Malagueta pepper sauce)

Malagueta chile peppers are native to Brazil. They are very hot! They are hard to find outside of Brazil, but small Thai bird’s eye chiles are an excellent substitute.

  • 1 red onion, finely minced
  • 1 clove garlic, peeled and minced 
  • 3 or more Malagueta chiles (or very hot red or green chiles, fresh or pickled), minced
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 to 2 tablespoons red wine or sherry vinegar
  • sea salt to taste

You can remove the seeds from the chilies if you would like to reduce the heat a little bit.

Heat the olive oil in a skillet set over medium heat. When hot add the onions, garlic, and chilies. Cook for 5 or 6 minutes until the onions are very soft and translucent. Press the onion mixture against the bottom of the pan while cooking. Turn off the heat and add the vinegar and stir to combine. Stir in salt to taste.

Transfer to a bowl and set aside to cool. Serve at room temperature or chilled.

 

Brief history of Brazil

The Portuguese first sailed into Porto Seguro in 1502. The native Tupinamba Indians were the only inhabitants. Small Portuguese colonies sprouted up to fell and trade in Pua- Brasil red wood. Sugar cane was the next trade resource with plantations that required laborers. At first the native population was enslaved, but many either escaped or died from European diseases. The Portuguese then turned to West African slaves for a labor force. As trade grew various interlopers became increasingly troublesome so the Portuguese monarch installed a governor and a established a  capital in what is now Salvador.

At the end of the 17th century precious gems and gold were discovered that essentially launched a gold rush of fortune hunters that needed to be regulated, so the capital was moved to Rio de Janeiro to centralize control.

Cotton and tobacco were introduced to bolster the emerging economy, followed by cattle ranching in the interior. It became clear to the Portuguese monarchy that the Portuguese in Brazil were stripping the country of its natural resources rather than developing a local economy. King Dom Joao VI, who was chased out of Portugal by Napoleon’s armies in 1808, arrived in Brazil and implemented major changes in the direction the country was heading. Investments were made in government buildings, a university, a bank, and a mint, and ports were opened to international trade.

Once Napoleon was defeated Dom Joao decided to return to Portugal, leaving his son Pedro I in charge of governing Brazil. But Pedro had other ideas and proclaimed Brazil’s independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822 and renamed the county The Brazilian Empire. Pedro I stepped aside in 1840, leaving his son Pedro II, who was 4 at the time, to rule. He grew up to become a progressive thinker, a supporter of freedom of speech and civil liberties, and abolished slavery in 1888. With the abolition of slavery a landowner’s rebellion ensued. Eventually Brazil’s first republican government was formed in 1899.

Brazil’s second wave of immigration began in 1800 and continued through the world wars, which greatly influence the face of modern day Brazil as one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world.

In 1930 a military coup seized power with military rule continuing until 1985 when a civilian government was restored with a transition to a democratic republic. The first direct elections were held in 1989. There have been six elected presidents since, many of whom werecaught up in political scandal and corruption.

 

Brazilian films: Another window of interest you might like to explore.

A short list follows of award winning films.

Embrace the Serpent     2015
Waste Land     2010
Linha de Passe     2008
City of God     2002
Central Station     1998
Four Days in September     1997
Fitzcarraldo     1982
Pixote     1981

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